||This course covers the fundamentals of chemical sensors and biosensors based on chemical modifications, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, semiconductor technologies, and physiological electrical signal measurements. Topics include sensing principles, commonly used sensors, strategies for achieving selectivity and adequate limits of detection, design of devices, and applications in health care, environmental monitoring, industry, and military areas. Articles from the current literature are discussed. We will also invite researchers to introduce current research. Active student participation is expected as an integral part of the course.