||Modern technology is growing fast. People thus enjoy the convenience in company with the technology—which they do and they just take it for granted to do. It may have something to do with electrical engineering, physics, chemical engineering, electro-optical engineering, materials…Some problems involves more than one field. People are curious about the technology and willing to know how to solve the problems. Human beings are able to build the pyramids and the Long Walls before they know anything about civil engineering—knowledge actually piled up by trial and error or accumulated experience. As knowledge expands, hi-end technology which requires “know-how” becomes more popular. In this course, we try to trace the history and the current situations: “Rome was not built in a day.” On the other hand, we might take another chance to RE-think a deeper problem: technology evolves without getting to maturity. Human beings will be enforced to find some other ways to improve it.