||The Republic of China--the first democratic country in Asia--was established, thanks to 1911's Revolution, which leads to overthrow Ching Dynasty. Since the birth, the country never ceased suffering from civil wars and domestic struggles: wars between warlords, disintegration of the KMT and the Japanese invasion, which led to the Second Sino-Japanese war. During this period of years, the Chinese Communist party grew stronger, due to the support from the Russians as well as the long eight years of war against the Japanese aggression. The conflict between KMT and the Communists restarted following World War II. After the take-over of mainland China by the Communists, the KMT government had no choice but relocated in Taiwan and has since acquired successful achievements both in politics and economics. This course also makes a comparison in variousmanners between PROC and Taiwan.